The Mystery Of The $100,000 Water Bills

Something is amiss with the water in Brockton, MA. No, it doesn’t smell or taste funny — it’s just costing some of the town’s citizens one hell of a lot of money. In fact, some residential customers have been charged as much as $100,000 for one month’s worth of H20.

Unwilling to drown in this erroneous debt, a number of the overcharged Brocktonians took their concerns to the City Council last night, who voted nearly unanimously to open an investigation into the water department’s billing practices.

One of the recipients of a $100K invoice is a single mother of three who says she hasn’t been able to resolve the issue with the department:

My biggest issue is that I still have a higher water bill than a commercial business, and no one can explain that to me.

A Brockton City Council member agrees that there is a problem:

We have a lot of faulty water meters out there. There has to be. Nobody gets $100,000 water bill. I’m sorry.

Customers Slapped With $100K Water Bills [The Boston Channel]

Thanks to Harper for the tip!

Comments

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  1. GuyGuidoEyesSteveDaveâ„¢ says:

    I like how they immediately assume it’s the meters. If they investigate, it should be easy to see how much water has been pumped vs how much has been billed for. If they match, then the problem isn’t the meters. It could very well be a leak. The problem with city water is you never notice a drop if a tap is left open. In my well system, if I hear the booster pump running for like 10 minutes and no one is outside, I know there is a tap open somewhere, and usually find one open in the fields.

    • IphtashuFitz says:

      “it should be easy to see how much water has been pumped vs how much has been billed for”

      And if the meter that’s being used to see how much water has been pumped is faulty?

    • Hoss says:

      How about if they are billing you for someone else’s meter? Or how about if the automated readings coming into the billing system are totally wrong? I have two units in Brockton MA , and as described below in my post, I had both these issues. They were not meter problems or leaks — this City is inept

    • sonneillon says:

      100k is still way to much even for a leak. I worked for a corporation that used an outrageous amount of water and their water bill only came out to about 15k-20k a month.
      There is no possible way for a regular household to use the same amount of water.

      Also there is more than one person.

    • Nigerian prince looking for business partner says:

      I’d imagine a leak big enough to rack up a $100,000 bill in a month would be big enough to cause a sink hole.

    • AnonymousCoward says:

      There was an article in the San Diego paper about a condo association that was on the hook because some disgruntled owner had left a faucet running full blast when they moved out. The bill for the month was only $3000. The pipes in the family’s house probably don’t have the capacity to handle $100,000 worth of water in a month.

      • lordargent says:

        I just did the math for San Diego a few minutes ago (look for my post somewhere below), it would have to be about 17 million gallons in a 2 month period.

    • mythago says:

      A $100,000 leak? SEVERAL such leaks? No, I don’t think so.

    • Sudonum says:

      I worked for a 1600 room, 1.5 million SF hotel. Our water bills usually ran $5000 – $7000 depending on occupancy. How many leaks would you need for a $100k water bill?

    • DGC says:

      My meter is in my basement, as I think most people’s are. If I had a leak that was causing that much of a billing error, my house would be flooded.

      • ellemdee says:

        Around me, all residential meters are located on the outsode of the house so the city can read them. My bills have never been above $16-$17/ month, and that’s with heavy water use in the hottest summer months for lawn care. If a house (or a business for that matter) had a $100K water leak, I’m pretty sure they’d be swimming out the door every morning instead of walking. That’s way beyone a few inches of water in the basement or a squishy lawn.

    • Michael the Great says:

      Actually water doesn’t work like that. They have no idea how much they’ve pumped. They only know how much has gone out by the meters.

      • Tallanvor says:

        Actually, water companies are able to report pretty accurately how much water they’ve pumped vs what was registered on meters. Even cities like London, with very old water systems, are able to determine how much water is being lost due to leaking pipes.

  2. pecan 3.14159265 says:

    Well, this is easy. What’s the going rate of water on Arrakis? And who in the neighborhood has been making weekly trips?

  3. MR. TheShack (SHORYUKEN!) says:

    Documentary to watch: Blue Gold (free on Netflix).

  4. Hoss says:

    I happen to have two rental units in Brockton MA. Both units had serious water billing issues. In one, they overcharged $4,000 and the other they overcharged $2,400. The DPW commissioner sucks. He has a new job, and can’t handle issues. It took me months to work through issues. On the second issue, I needed to get the City Solicitor involved because they refused to follow state regulations. I can’t describe how inept the DPW Commissioner is in Brockton.

    In any event, I urge everyone no matter where they live to check the meter number against the bill. Be sure they are billing for the right meter. Second, if the bill says Estimated, be sure to call the DPW with actual readings. Even if you have an automated device on your meter that has recorded readings for years, check to be sure the bill has an accurate reading!

    I hope this DPW arse gets canned,

    • Tallanvor says:

      Sounds like you should be asking Todd Petti why he’d have “full confidence” in the commissioner given the issues people are having.

  5. sonneillon says:

    People seem to be making their own water parks at home.

  6. chucklesjh says:

    We don’t have city water where I live, but there was a leak in one of our pipes from the well, needless to say, after it was discovered, our electric bill went down quite substantially.

  7. nsv says:

    My mother got a $10,000+ electric bill on a summer cottage that was closed up for the winter. It was pretty obvious looking at the bills that it was an error in rounding by the meter reader. It took several months to fix, and no one at the utility seemed to think that a $10,000 bill for one month for an unused two room cottage was unusual.

    • acasto says:

      I know, that is what I don’t get. How lazy and and incompetent my someone be to be so complacent with such an issue. My reaction would be along the lines of, “Hah! WTF! I’ll see what I can do.” These people seem to think it’s best to leave it to the next guy because they have a smoke break coming up.

    • shepd says:

      To use that much power, your cottage would have required either industrial 600 VAC power, or, at the standard 240 Volts (divided between two 120 volt phases), it would have needed to have been on the brink of shorting out the minimum 700 Amp service required to use $10,000 of electricity in a long month at $0.08/kWh. It’d also have to dissipate 168,000 watts of heat, the equivalent of about 100 space heaters running full blast, and not melt/set on fire.

      If the cottage had more than 100 Amp service, I’d be amazed. This just violates the laws of physics!

      • nsv says:

        Yeah, it was 100 amp service. These were exactly the points I was making to the utility, though not as clearly as you did. Their response: “Someone must be stealing the power, and you’re responsible.”

        Me: “What part of NOT PHYSICALLY POSSIBLE do you have trouble understanding?”

        • econobiker says:

          Could be that her neighbors had a five acre underground pot farm with associated grow lights and water pumps.

          Just sayin’…

  8. jaya9581 says:

    I wouldn’t be surprised to find out that the bills are legit because someone was somehow stealing water. I feel bad for these people and hope it gets figured out, whatever the truth may be, but Brockton is one of those sketchy towns that I detest going to for any reason and you couldn’t pay me enough to live there. And yes, I did live there for a long time, in several areas.

    • nsv says:

      That is a WHOLE lotta water. Does the local hospital even use that much water monthly?

    • tundey says:

      You would have to steal a whole lot of water to get a legit $100,000 bill. And if multiple residences are getting it…what’s the explanation? All of them are stealing lots of water?

    • P41 says:

      Most people rightly assume someone would have noticed a line of tanker trucks lined up to fill up with stolen water, or a newly trenched river leading away from the houses (SEVERAL) in question. Thus the focus on the doubt it’s a leak. Please use your head before posting.

      Implicit in the story is the doubt that it is even physically possible to move $100,000 worth of water through the meter during the billing period. There’s a reason why big water users and fire hydrants don’t use 3/4 inch pipes, some use pipes bigger than basketballs.

    • AnonymousCoward says:

      That’s a *lot* of water. I doubt that the pipe that the meter is attached to could carry $100k worth of water in a month’s time.

    • mikedt says:

      Doesn’t everybody have the water meter inside their residence? To affect the water bill they’d have to steal water from the inside the residence. Stealing anywhere else would be before the meter and wouldn’t affect the bill.

      • operator207 says:

        Mine is in the front lawn, by the curb. I have never seen one inside a house. Then again, I have lived in only a few states over the years, so I guess it’s possible.

    • Grabraham says:

      a little back of the envelope math looks like even at a rounded up figure of $4.00 (higher than the highest rate I could find for Brockton and twice the normal rate) per 100 Cubic feet of water puts you around 2.5 million cubic feet of water or almost 19 million gallons of water.. seems like theft is a less than likely scenario

  9. Humward says:

    The vote to investigate was only “nearly” unanimous? I’m amazed that one of the councilmen saw a $100,000 bill and thought “nah, that’s gotta be legit.”

    According to the article, he said that he had faith in the water department…because, seriously, when have they ever made a mistake?

    • tundey says:

      I was going to ask about that. I think that should be a litmus test for holding public office. If you think $100,000 water bill is nothing to investigate, you aren’t fit to serve. Gosh!

      • Pax says:

        I think people are missing a possibility here: the one not-in-favor vote need not have been a NO; it may have been an ABSTAIN.

        Maybe that person couldn’t make it to the meeting (on vacation, family emergency, prior doctor’s appointment, etc).

        Maybe that person is directly related to someone high up in the DPW.

        Maybe they’re related to someone with one of those $100K bills.

        Maybe they _are_ one of the people with a $100K bill.

        In any and all o those situations, it would be improper to register any vote EXCEPT “abstain”. And on a council of, say, 7? “6 in favor, 1 abstain” is _nearly_ unanimous.

        • tamaracks says:

          The article states: “The vote to audit the Water Department was not unanimous. City Councilor Todd Petti voted against the demand for public disclosure, saying he has full confidence in the DPW commissioner and the water commissioner.” so it’s pretty clear that he did not abstain, he voted against it outright. Which is damn silly.

          • runswithscissors says:

            That’s when you check whether the councilman and the water commish are related…

        • Platypi {Redacted} says:

          Except in the linked article it mentions the member that voted against this had full confidence in the DPW and water commissioners. No Abstain mentioned.

        • Platypi {Redacted} says:

          Except in the linked article it mentions the member that voted against this had full confidence in the DPW and water commissioners. No Abstain mentioned.

    • Liam Kinkaid says:

      I saw that too. I wonder what’s up with that councilman.

    • kosmo @ The Soap Boxers says:

      Yeah, that jumped out at me, too.

      Even if he does have faith in the water department, does it really hurt to audit the process once in a while?

      On the bright side, he probably won’t be around after the next election.

  10. teke367 says:

    I kind of hope this happens to me. My water company charges me a flat fee for water, about $50 a month, my parents who live two towns over pay $50 a quarter, they have a 2000 square foot condo, I have a 500 square foot condo. Perhaps if they thought I was using $100K of water, they’d drop the ridiculous policy, which only causes people to not worry about conserving water.

    • craptastico says:

      $50/month for water is a pretty bad screw job, unless you happen to live in the desert, or on the moon

      • physics2010 says:

        The “water bill” may easily have included sewage, and perhaps even garbage. Its all the same bill for us, though it is itemized. As far as $50 just for water being outrageous it just depends on the availability of water and how much work has to be done to make it drinkable. e.g. people that rely on reverse omosis water purifiers to turn salt water into drinkable water are paying a pretty penny, same as if they were living in certain desert regions.

    • catastrophegirl chooses not to fly says:

      it definitely depends on where you live and the water company. my sister lives ten miles from me and is on city water. she pays around $80 a month to the city, for two people, which includes sewage fees.
      i’m on a community well with a septic tank. my last water bill was $19.46 [for one person] and $15 of that is the ‘existence of being our customer’ fee

      Service charge $15.18
      Rate per gallon $0.004760

      does your provider at least break it down as to why your bill is so high?

    • Snoofin says:

      how can you waste water. It never disappears. You use it, it evaporates, and then falls back down as raij

      • trentblase says:

        Step 1: Leave water outside
        Step 2: Light hits water, turning 2xH2O into 2xH2 + O2
        Step 3: Hydrogen floats up into atmosphere
        Step 4: Hydrogen leaks into outer space

        • shepd says:

          So, what you’re saying is that I can power my hydrogen powered vehicle by using a clear tank full of water as long as it’s on the roof? And get some extra pep out of it with the pure O2? Nice!

        • 47ka says:

          haha I don’t know whether this is a joke or you’re unaware that if regular light were capable of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen we’d be probably all be dead from massive and frequent explosions.

          • trentblase says:

            Mostly joking, but since you apparently know what you’re talking about I’ll suggest you google “electromagnetic electrolysis” and “atmospheric escape”. I’m sure the actual amount of water lost by these processes is quite small.

            An alternative is to wait for the magnetic poles to shift again, and let the solar winds remove water while there is no protective field (which is what supposedly happened to Mars).

      • Conformist138 says:

        But, not all water on the planet is usable. Clean, fresh water is a limited resource, we can’t all use as much as we want all the time and have enough for everyone (and keep it affordable). People do need to show some level of restraint.

    • koalabare says:

      Ha, you think that is bad? I grew up on an island. I moved into an apartment in the “downtown” part of the island, and my water bill would regularly be $150-200/month. My parents, who lived a few miles away, used much more water (they have a giant house and a lawn, and 3 people) and only paid about $60. It turns out I was on “island water” and they were on “county water.” Now that I moved across the state I use more water and only pay $30.

  11. Sparty999 says:

    I would have just assumed that this kind of thing would get fixed over the phone..

    Caller: “Yeah, I think my water bill is wrong… it says I owe $100,000″

    Operator: “Wow, that doesn’t sound right”

    Caller: “Yeah, I know… I laughed my ass off when I saw it!”

    Operator: “Pretty funny… I guess you’ve been taking a few extra showers?… we’ll get that taken care of for you right now… let’s see, your bill is normally $31m let’s just drop it to that for now… I’ll notate your account that we talked, and take this to my manager right away.”

    Caller: “Thank you for your help!”

    • Supes says:

      You are assuming a lot about the people who answer the phones for a utlity company. But in a perfect world, you’re certainly right, that’s how it should be done.

  12. Sparty999 says:

    I would have just assumed that this kind of thing would get fixed over the phone..

    Caller: “Yeah, I think my water bill is wrong… it says I owe $100,000″

    Operator: “Wow, that doesn’t sound right”

    Caller: “Yeah, I know… I laughed my ass off when I saw it!”

    Operator: “Pretty funny… I guess you’ve been taking a few extra showers?… we’ll get that taken care of for you right now… let’s see, your bill is normally $31m let’s just drop it to that for now… I’ll notate your account that we talked, and take this to my manager right away.”

    Caller: “Thank you for your help!”

  13. shadowhh says:

    We will probably find out that the Water company meter has been off by about 5 gallons a day since it was installed nearly 100 years ago or something. Now the current owner needs to pay for all the backdated water.

  14. RadarOReally has got the Post-Vacation Blues says:

    The last sentence here is what I love:

    ‘”We have a lot of faulty water meters out there. There has to be. Nobody gets $100,000 water bill. I’m sorry,” said Brockton City Councilor Dennis Denapoli.

    He’s sorry, but as of now, those bills are still outstanding.’

    • AK47 - Now with longer screen name! says:

      Hey I applaud the guy for saying, “I’m sorry” instead of some version of “we’re taking it seriously.”

  15. Black Bellamy says:

    I pay a flat fee of $400 a year. I can run 467 washing machines and 13,673 sprinklers and it will still only be $400.

  16. ganzhimself says:

    I feel your pain… We’re charged what basically amounts to a flat rate per month for sewer usage, it’s ~$50, then we are charged for water usage monthly as well. Water usage generally is $5-$15. It’s highway robbery.

    • RandomMutterings says:

      That’s not highway robbery. Where I live water is billed by actual usage, and it’s running about $800/year!

  17. jim says:

    Programmer: I have figured out a way we can balance the city budget!!!
    City Councilor: Really, what?
    Programmer: We can just add a cent to each bill!! Most people will never know! A couple of years and we should be good!!
    City Councilor: LETS DO IT!!!!

    Later:
    City Councilor: What is happening?!! Why are all these people harassing me about their bills??!!
    Programmer: You know that one cent extra charge on all the bills?
    City Councilor: Right, but it was for one cent per month.
    Programmer: Well, looks like we have some sort of negative number rounding conversion error. Sorry about that…

  18. DJ Charlie says:

    A normal month for us is about $40., but every 3-4 months we get an outrageously high water bill, usually to the tune of $1500. And every time, it’s based on an “estimate” instead of the actual meter reading. Every time we get it, we complain, and they fix it. Their excuse? “We don’t know how these computer things estimate usage, and we’re too busy to get it fixed.”

    BTW: Our water company is a co-op, so they DON’T have to report to the Utilities Commissioner’s office.

  19. MacGyver says:

    This is why a homeowner or building owner must read their meters monthly to verify utility bills and never use pre-authorized payment. Imagine the ruckus had $100k been attempted to have been withdrawn from granny’s chequing account!

    • Hoss says:

      Or in many cases, people get the water billings levied against property taxes and charged against the mortgage escrow. They need to check the meters!

  20. John from Huntersville says:

    There was an issue in the Charlotte, NC area with extremely high water bills. Lots of folks were getting inordinately large water bills (although none were $100,000). It turned out to be defective meters.

  21. jaazzman says:

    I’ve been working in the utility industry for 11 years and I don’t understand why this utility doesn’t have one of 2 things in place:
    -Bills that have either increased or decreased by a certain percentage are checked before they are sent. In this case, my guess is the bill increased by about 470000%.
    -Even better, when the meter reads come in, reads like this are checked BEFORE they even appear on the invoice. Rollovers, incorrect reads etc happen all the time, you just need to make a correction before billing.
    -If unsure of the reading, get the customer to read the meter, or better yet, send someone out to double check.

    Bills this high are usually due to a meter with a large number of digits and someone read a rollover when that was not in fact the case. I personally have never had any problems with excluding a charge from penalties etc until a check to determine if the charges are correct have been completed. From the comments here, this city / town / shithole sounds pretty scummy to me.

    • jaazzman says:

      3 things. Apparently I can’t count. Hope I didn’t screw up someones water bill…

    • Hoss says:

      I don’t know if you read my comments above. Water is billed by the City, and I’m quite sure there’s no sanity checks on accuracy. Also, the meter readings are automated, not read in person.

      The issues I had were in one case, they billed for a neighbor’s meter, and in another case the readings were estimated over five years and when they realized it, they seemed to make up a reading. I was eventually refunded thousands but not without wasting a lot of time

      • Dalsnsetters says:

        Five YEARS of estimated readings?? Wow.

        I used to work in utility billing for a submetering company (they would retroactively install meters–water and electricity–into apartment buildings, do the readings, send the bills, and process the payments). We did readings all over the United States (I am in FL). In some states, there is a law (statute? rule? whatever) that says meters canNOT be estimated for a period of time longer than six months (some states it’s three, some states allow 12, but in NO case is it longer than 12 months). Especially if the estimated readings are due to faulty equipment in need of repair.

        This only applies to five consecutive years of estimated readings. Some folks get around it by estimating for a month or two, then doing an actual read, estimate for another month or two, do an actual read. I’d look into that and perhaps use that to bitch slap DPW around a bit.

        One thing I did learn in that job (as crappy a job as it was…I hated going to work in the morning)…..as a general guideline, a one person household’s water usage is usually around 3000 gals per month (give or take, depending on the individual). You can add ~1500 gals per month for each additional person in the household.

        • Hoss says:

          There is practically no regulation or oversight in Massachusetts concerning water and sewer billing by municipalities. I learned this the hard way in trying to deal with this very city (Brockton MA).; Our State utilities commission will help out if water if delivered privately. If 5 years seems outrageous, there are cases in this Brockton community that people have been recently back-billed for 20+ years! This fish stinks, and it comes from their DPW Commissioner

  22. ahecht says:

    Brockton water rates are about $0.004/gallon for residential users. At that rate, $100,000 would buy you 25,000,000 gallons of water, or approximately 38 olympic sized swimming pools. To put it further in perspective, the maximum flow through a standard 5/8″ water meter is 15 gpm. At that rate, it would take over three years to use that much water, and if you had a leak that big you would definately notice because none of your other faucets would work. Once you factor in the resistance from the pipes in most houses, you’d be hard pressed to get more than 10 gpm out of a city water supply, which would take 4.75 years to rack up that bill. There is no way that any one meter could read that for a single month.

    • nsv says:

      If you had a leak that big you would definitely notice when your house fell into the sinkhole it created.

    • WayneB says:

      More math: 25 million gallons of water equals a little more than 3 1/3 million cubic feet of water. That’s a football stadium filled to a depth of 58 feet.

  23. vastrightwing says:

    A condo complex in Waltham, MA recently had a huge leak (after the meter). There were several problems 1) The management company didn’t notice the leak. 2) The town didn’t notice it either and 3) finally lawyers got involved. The town settled for half the water and then there was yet another leak after the initial leak was fixed. Unbelievable. The bill for this was about $100K as well and this was divided among the residents of the building. Finally the meter was moved where someone could actually read the darn thing.

    Two things bother me, water costs close to zero and since the water was not going back through the sewer, there should have been zero sewer costs involved. It’s not like the town lost any money. Loosing millions of gallons of water is not a big deal. They lose tons of water due to leaky main pipes anyway, but if they find a leak after a meter, they want you to pay up. This is extortion. The other thing that bothers me is the management company not catching the leak. Something is wrong.

    This poor woman can’t get anyone to investigate this mess? Well, I bet a television station would investigate it for her. Also, hire a lawyer. In fact, put an ad in the local paper and ask anyone who is having billing problems to all get together and hire a lawyer to take care of it.

  24. vastrightwing says:

    A condo complex in Waltham, MA recently had a huge leak (after the meter). There were several problems 1) The management company didn’t notice the leak. 2) The town didn’t notice it either and 3) finally lawyers got involved. The town settled for half the water and then there was yet another leak after the initial leak was fixed. Unbelievable. The bill for this was about $100K as well and this was divided among the residents of the building. Finally the meter was moved where someone could actually read the darn thing.

    Two things bother me, water costs close to zero and since the water was not going back through the sewer, there should have been zero sewer costs involved. It’s not like the town lost any money. Loosing millions of gallons of water is not a big deal. They lose tons of water due to leaky main pipes anyway, but if they find a leak after a meter, they want you to pay up. This is extortion. The other thing that bothers me is the management company not catching the leak. Something is wrong.

    This poor woman can’t get anyone to investigate this mess? Well, I bet a television station would investigate it for her. Also, hire a lawyer. In fact, put an ad in the local paper and ask anyone who is having billing problems to all get together and hire a lawyer to take care of it.

    • Hoss says:

      Actually, water delivery in Brockton MA is substantially less expensive than Waltham MA. Sorry to get local on a worldwide-reach site — but the fact is that Waltham Mass is charged by the MWRA (Mass Water Resource Authority). Any concessions by Waltham come out of your local property taxes.

    • AlexJP says:

      As a condo owner in Waltham, your story piqued my interest. But my Google-fu is failing me, I can’t seem to find any articles on this, can you tell me more?

  25. runswithscissors says:

    If people don’t want a $100,000 water bill then they shouldn’t use $100,000 worth of water in a month! I have no sympathy with their McMansions and not having 7 years worth of savings in their bank account and using a debit card and letting their brat kids fly unsupervised…

  26. Omali says:

    $100k worth of water?

    I knew Starbucks was looking to open stores everywhere, but I didn’t know they were moving into residential homes.

  27. zcb says:

    Yes, $100,000 is clearly a mistake, however, I’m envious of those that have posted their low water bills. Florida has horrific water charges. My monthly bill for water is never, ever lower than $150 and there are only two people in the house and we don’t use an excessive amount of water nor are there any leaks. $50…I would love to have a $50 monthly water bill.

  28. wrbwrx says:

    Brockton’s nickname is “City of Champions”

    Shame on City Councilor Todd Petti that he does not want to look for an answer or want to help a constituent.

  29. smo0 says:

    Was this for the month or over time?

    I had a relative who was in NYC for 3 weeks when a pipe burst in his house…. I don’t think the bill exceeded a few hundred…….. so… wtf?

  30. dush says:

    Nearly unanimously? There was a council member who didn’t care they were getting these exhorbitant erroneous bills?

  31. lordargent says:

    Here comes some back of the napkin math.

    From the San Diego water department page.

    For billing purposes, the Public Utilities Department measures water used by hundred cubic feet or HCF.

    Each HCF equals 748.05 gallons.

    The bi-monthly charges for a typical single-family domestic customer are:

    Base fee: $37.72
    First 14 HCF used are billed at $3.507 per HCF.
    Second 14 HCF used are billed at $3.803 per HCF.
    Each HCF used after the initial 28 HCF is billed at $4.270
    ———————
    So, assuming they are billed every 2 months, to get a $100,000 water bill, they would have to leak.

    $100,000 – $37.72 => $99,962.28 (removing the base charge)
    - 14 x 3.507 ($49.098) => $99,913.18 (tier 1 use) – 14 HCF total
    - 14 x 3.803 ($53.242) => $99,859.94 (tier 2 use) – 28 HCF total
    99859.94 / 4.270 => 23386.40 HCF (23428.40 HCF total)

    23428.40 HCF * 748.05 gallons => 17,525,614.62 gallons in 2 months