Where Did The Cars Go? Manufacturers Are Confiscating Cars From Dealerships

Here’s a weird symptom of the disease that’s killing the auto industry — empty car dealerships, some of which are still open for business.

KOMO 1000 has a story about two Nissan dealerships and a Subaru dealer where hundreds of new cars and trucks have been seized by the manufacturer — placed on semi trucks and spirited away to parts unknown.

At Auburn Nissan, a sales agent says the shop is still in business. But you’ll have a tough time finding anything to buy. The inventory at Eastside Subaru in Kirkland has also vanished.

The problem is apparently crumbling financing in this free-fall economy, and the dealerships squabbling with the auto companies about how things should be done.

Since Nissan, Subaru and most other auto manufacturer own all the cars that are for sale at dealerships, they can yank them off a dealer’s lot when they want to. If new financing gets worked out, the cars come back.

And then there’s this story from Marshall, Texas about a GM dealership… with an accompanying ad for the dealership…

Representatives from General Motors Corp. and General Motors Acceptance Corp. loaded the vehicles onto 18-wheelers and drove them off the lot at 1400 East End Blvd. S. Monday after back-and-forth decisions by local district judges.
Cindy Morton, a former All American employee who happened to be at the dealership Monday on unrelated business, described the scene that day as “a madhouse.”

She said GMC and GMAC representatives were “running around the lot taking pictures of and filming vehicles” as they were being loaded aboard the transport vehicles. Ms. Morton said about 40 people lost their jobs as a result of the action.

Local dealership emptied [Marshall News-Messenger]
Where have all the cars gone? [KOMO 1000]


Edit Your Comment

  1. magstheaxe says:

    So what do the auto companies DO with the cars that they seized? How can they sell them without using a dealership?

    • B1663R says:

      @magstheaxe: i thoink that they auction them off as “as is” with no warranty.

      to a manufacturer, something is always better than nothing.

      • acarr260 says:

        @B1663R: Can you substantiate that or are you just making it up? I would bet against you. Why would they auction new cars (never been titled) off essentially as used with no warranty? The vehicles have never actually been sold once so far. I would say that they will go back into the distribution network or sit on a lot somewhere else until new financing is arranged to cover inventory.

        • David Brodbeck says:

          @acarr260: Yeah, I agree. I don’t see why they can’t sell these as new cars. It’s not like they were sold to an individual and then repo’d.

          It might depend on whether it’s a bank or the manufacturer that provided the financing, though. The bank may not have an option other than auctioning them off.

          • acarr260 says:

            @David Brodbeck: The bank in this case is generally a financing arm of the automaker (like GMAC). It’s kind of a toss-up from my knowledge. The cars are put on the books as a sale at the mfg when they ship to the dealer, and the dealer has bridge financing to cover a given amount of inventory (not specific cars).

      • YouDidWhatNow? says:


        They basically go back into the manufacturer’s inventory and will be redistributed to other dealers as needed…

    • slowinthefastlane says:

      @magstheaxe: The will be sold as new by another dealership. A car remains new until it is titled by a dealer. This is why you can buy a “dealer demo” as new, even though it may have a few thousand miles on it. Until the dealer files the paperwork with the state to title it, it’s considered new.

      These cars will either go directly to another dealer that had arranged to purchase them as from the manufacturer or they will go to one of the many holding lots throughout the country until another dealer purchases them.

      One thing to keep in mind is that car manufacturers don’t sell cars to you and I – they sell them to dealerships that in turn sell them to customers. When a dealership obtains a car from the manufacturer, they can either pay outright for it, or they can finance it (sometimes called “floor planning”). If they do the latter, they’re counting on selling it as soon as possible to avoid paying interest on it. For a floor planned car, every day that the car sits on the lot, the dealer is losing money on the future transaction. If they can’t “move the metal”, they will eventually have inventory that they will either need to sell to break even or at a loss.

      Floor planning makes a lot of sense to the manufactures, as it allows them to stuff the dealer channels with more inventory, which in turn allows them to build more cars. However, if the dealer isn’t paying their finance charges, then the manufacturer gets to repossess the cars as they did in this case.

    • Quaoar says:

      @magstheaxe: When the economy improves, they build a new car line, and put new sheetmetal on the bodies.

      Frankly, I think they’ll ship what they can to South America, Central America, Mexico, the stable states of Africa, and to Asia, selling for what these markets will pay. The deficit will acccumulate on balance sheets as a loss, for which you and I will pay.

      It is always better to sell at a loss than to not sell at all.

  2. Marc Melton says:

    So they’re taking cars, and bringing them where? To some secret place where people are actually buying new cars? How are people supposed to buy cars, if they don’t have any?

  3. worrytron says:

    Seems like a classic example of cutting off the nose to spite the face. Nissan is freaking out because nobody wants to buy overpriced boy racers, and GM is, well, GM.

    • parad0x360 says:

      @worrytron: overpriced boy racers?

      The only “race” car Nissan sells in America is the Z series and those cars are nothing short of amazing.

      The rest of their American lineup is geared towards families and business men/women and those too are high quality cars.

      • Optimus says:

        @parad0x360: Too bad they sued a guy named Nissan after he named a website after himself. I’ve been in the market for a car multiple times in the past decade and I have skipped over ANY Nissan because of that. A pity too, considering they have some pretty good cars. I just don’t by cars from the mob.

        • campredeye says:

          @Optimus: Are you serious? First off, the Nissan site you are referencing was registered by the individual well before Datsun became Nissan. Once they became a worldy recognizable brand, and wanted to establish a web presence, they found their domain taken — by a lonely computer repair man. Obviously, someone going to Nissan.com is looking for the website for a car, not a computer repair guy.

  4. LastVigilante says:

    This happened 20 some years ago to the GMC dealership where my dad worked as a parts salesman. The Friday after Thanksgiving he and the rest of his coworkers went to work to find that all the cars were gone and they were out of a job. If a dealership fails to pay the manufacturer, then they just swoop in late at night and shut the place down.

  5. HawkWolf says:

    Couldn’t they stimulate auto sales by just knocking the price 50% or something? I mean I presume having inventory is a bad thing, so they would want to get rid of it.

    • acarr260 says:

      @HawkWolf: At a 50% dicount, they would lose money on every vehicle sold. Inventory is huge in the auto industry – a normal automotive distribution system has 90 days worth of product on the lots in a good economy. There are fields and test tracks/race tracks that are completely covered in un-shipped inventory right now.

      • Hamm Beerger says:

        @acarr260: GM is already losing money on most of their sales.

        It really doesn’t matter if they lose money on a sale… eventually they’re going to have to price the cars so that they sell, period. 50 cents on the dollar is better than nothing.

  6. Segador says:


    “Just get them on the truck!”

    “Where are we taking them, boss?”

    “I…I don’t know! F**k! Just drive! Go!”

    *18 wheeler tire squeal*

  7. boomerang86 says:

    Dealers are losing their “floor plan” financing, which is kind of a bridge loan between accepting the cars from the manufacturer and delivering to the end customer. When the financing dries up, the bank repos the inventory. Simple.

    Sucks for dealers that can’t float the cash for inventory (very few can, even small town shops).

  8. gStein_*|bringing starpipe back|* says:

    the dealerships will probably stay open for a while, as a repair center – every dealership i’ve gone to also does car service

  9. B1663R says:

    i think if you check out local auction warehouses you may see them there.

    i also think that the cars are often auctioned off as “as is” meaning no warranties or guarantees.

    and if I’m making this up correctly, the bidding usually starts around $10,000.00 for something like a mid-sized car…

    • acarr260 says:

      @B1663R: You should really try sticking to factual data instead of just making things up that confuse the discussion.

      • B1663R says:

        @acarr260: oh for the love of go…

        this is one of them times where you check your local auction house for great deals on new cars…

        2 catches though, the good cars go to used car dealers first. then the public gets to fight over the scraps.

        ps. keep this a secret, the entire planet doesn’t really know about this yet (or the average consumer for that matter)

        recent local find 2006 lancer with 73468 on the odometer. my bid at auction was $4500.00

        • David Brodbeck says:

          @B1663R: How do you know if you’re getting a decent car at auction, or if it even runs? I’m assuming they don’t let you test drive them first.

          • Anonymous says:

            @David Brodbeck:

            They have to drive them through the auction garage. So if they don’t run they don’t make it in front of the auctioneer. There they’ll pop the hood and let you have a look while the engine is running. Still not as good as driving it yourself, but better than nothing.

        • Mr.DuckSauce says:

          @B1663R: you are right on that, I have a friends father who owns a garage and small dealership in cars, we usually go to the auction to get cars and they would look at the cars before they go on the auction block, the engine and whatnot, and the deals are amazing for dealers then it becomes public when no one wants them, I have seen so many gulf cars at the auction.

  10. Collie says:

    Why should their be more than a few cars on the lot anyway? The car buying process is so stupid and expensive to operate anyway. Why not set up a system where you order your car custom made and in a couple of weeks it is delivered to the dealer. This would elminate the need to finance the cost of all those cars to sit on the lot in the elements.

    It would reduce the need for huge auto parks that are a blight on the cityscape. Dealers can redesign their businesses to better provide service and parts departments to be more competitive with independent providers.

    Unfortunately most consumers have an I need it now complex, and it will never work. I can go to any auto maker website custom build my car, see how much it costs, and all the details, except order what I want. Think of the possibilities. The local dealer only has a small fleet of cars for test drives and loaners, should help reduce the overall cost of buying a car.

    • Jfielder says:

      Or how about being able to order your car right there, online, while in the comfort of your own home, and have it delivered right to your house? That’d be kinda cool. I wouldn’t do it though, I only buy used. I like to let others take the huge depreciation hit on a new car.

    • ARP says:

      @Collie: The auto industry operates in like it’s still 1975. That being said, there is a small (but significant) number of people that want to see the exact car they’re going to buy before they sign the papers. I like your idea, but much would depend on my options to cancel and at what price, my ability to inspect the car and reject without fees, etc.

      • David Brodbeck says:

        @ARP: Yeah, I’m with you. I won’t buy a car I haven’t driven. Well, unless I’m paying $200 for a non-running project, but in that case I’ll look it over pretty closely first.

        I’d have a really hard time paying $20,000+ for something sight unseen.

        • Collie says:

          @David Brodbeck: I did not say not to drive a vehicle before you bought it. The dealership would have several models available, or do you mean the actual car you will purchase? If so, what do you think you would notice upon driving a new vehicle? Anything wrong would be covered under warranty. You realize cars are the only thing you try before you buy? We buy computers, electronics, houses, and food without trying it first, why would a car be any different?

          As for buying on the internet from my recliner, that is the only way to go, but unfortunately there are laws (varies by state) that protect the dealerships from direct sales by the manufacturers. The manufacturers do not argue, because they use the dealerships to be the front man for the warranty repairs and service. But the day is coming when all that will change.

    • David in Brasil says:

      @Collie: That’s the way it’s done in the rest of the world. Here in South America, a local dealer might have 5 or 6 cars in the showroom, usually just the most popular sellers. If you want something different, or high-end, then you have to go to a city (Sao Paulo, in my case) to a bigger dealer, or just take their word that it’s a nice car. But that’s what people do, day in and day out.

  11. Onion_Volcano says:

    No need for dealers. Direct buy through the manufacturer. Only have maintenance facilities for warranty work.

  12. prag says:

    Somewhat related. Floorplans have dried up due to a particularly ironic twist to the financial crisis. Banks were derided for being too loose with their lending and getting us into this mess. They learned their lesson and now are very careful who they lend to. A loan for floorplans for, say, a Chrysler dealer looks like a spectacularly poor risk. The public isn’t buying, the cars are junk, the manufacturer could go under at any minute leaving the bank with truckloads of cars that no one wants. It’s like an unsecured loan.

  13. Liam Kinkaid says:

    I think the fulfillment of the scriptures is finally upon us. Allow me to remind you what has been prophesied:
    And out comes a man from Mars
    And you try to run but he’s got a gun
    And he shoots you dead and he eats your head
    And then you’re in the man from Mars
    You go out at night, eatin’ cars
    You eat Cadillacs, Lincolns too
    Mercuries and Subarus
    And you don’t stop, you keep on eatin’ cars

  14. spazztastic says:

    If you think that’s bad, don’t get into an accident with a GM or Chrysler vehicle, the wait for parts is astoundingly long.

  15. meechybee says:

    Even though it sounds ass-backwards, this is actually one of the more logical decisions that the car companies have made.

    If a dealership doesn’t have strong credit it’s more likely to declare bankruptcy and never pay the factory for the inventory. So the manufacturer will be out inventory, transportation costs, and destroy customer relationships and loyalty.

    Yanking back on the number of dealers is an all-around better position for the auto makers to be in. With fewer dealers, there’s less franchise overhead and more efficiency and profits (= loyalty) for those who are left.

  16. Corporate_guy says:

    If dealers are going to be suing GM, then GM has to go through bankruptcy to gain protection.

    • acarr260 says:

      @Corporate_guy: How would the dealer in this situation have any legal recourse against GM? Quite simply, they do not.

      If GM were to cut a brand (say, Hummer) that has dealership contracts that required heavy investment and they just stopped supplying cars to the dealers, that would be a situation where lawsuits start popping up everywhere.

  17. madanthony says:

    They probably are trying to remove them before the dealers try to steal them themselves.

    As far as the people saying that they go to auction, I doubt that. Keep in mind that the car company still owns the vehicle until it’s sold to the buyer, which is why they can repo them in the first place. I don’t see any reason they can’t just send them to another dealership that isn’t having financial problems.

  18. David Brodbeck says:

    @Collie: You can custom-order a car from the factory, but as you say, most people don’t want to wait. You’ll also pay extra for the privilege of getting exactly the option packages you want on your ride. Plus you lose some bargaining leverage, since you’re not offering to take some inventory off the dealer’s hands.

    Once upon a time that was how the car industry as a whole worked. It still works that way for some ultra-luxury brands. If you buy a really high-end car, like one of Rolls Royce’s top-end models, you probably will never sit in it or drive in it before you buy it; you’ll go to the dealership and look at color swatches and tell them exactly what you want, and they’ll build it and deliver it to you.

    • Collie says:

      @David Brodbeck: I realize that, but you do not order directly from the manufacturer, you order from the dealer, who then orders from the maker, and they do not “announce” this feature because they would rather sale one of the albatrosses on the lot in a color I don’t want, and to do so they have to bargain with me. But if they did not have 1000 cars on the lot, they would be more than willing to bargain. Which brings up another point, why do we bargain for cars but not TV’s? Price your car for what you think it should sale for, and let the market determine what is a fair price.

  19. SuryaGlabrio says:

    This happened to a Nissan Dealership near me. The dealership just opened like a year ago and they missed their loan payments with the bank. Bank wouldn’t work with them (claimed they were getting out of the car business). Bank swooped in and took all the cars, as well as fixtures, computers and anything not bolted down. All those people just plain out of work one day. The owner of the dealership was in total denial the whole time. I hope he sleeps with a gun under his pillow.

  20. David Brodbeck says:

    BTW, I used to live in Auburn and there’s high turnover in dealerships there anyway. The town has a big “auto row” and every month or two one of the dealerships goes under and gets replaced — usually the smaller used car lots.

    I’m not sure why so many car dealerships located in Auburn, but I suspect it has to do with the enormous Union Pacific car unloading lot at the edge of town.

  21. RandomHookup says:

    They take the cars away to the same place that they ship the t-shirts made for the loser of the Super Bowl. Somewhere in Africa, a 12-year old boy is driving the new Nissan Maxima you had your eye on.

  22. cmdrsass says:

    This is actually terrific as it might hasten the day when we can buy direct from the manufacturer without going through “dealers”.

    • johnva says:

      @cmdrsass: I totally agree. The whole car dealership system is really inefficient and stupid. What is the point of having millions of dollars in inventory sitting on every car lot? Who needs immediate gratification on something as expensive as a new car? Just let people pick their car from a catalog, maybe have a few demonstration units around for people to test-drive, and then deliver them to order. Simple. People get something that is closer to exactly what they want, manufacturers can cut the dealers out of the loop to lower costs, and we can get rid of some ugly monstrosities in all our towns and cities.

      It’s like they didn’t learn any lessons about how to be more efficient by minimizing unsold inventory. This finally seems like a good move to me by an industry that is seemingly run by idiots and shackled by outmoded ways of doing business.

      • David Brodbeck says:

        @johnva: I think you underestimate how many people buy cars on impulse. I don’t mean that they wake up one day and suddenly decide to buy a car, but if they need a car anyway they’re more likely to buy one that they see on a lot.

        • johnva says:

          @David Brodbeck: That may well be so (though I find the idea of buying a car without doing tons of research first incomprehensible). But the question is whether it outweighs the costs of carrying all that inventory. Does it increase sales THAT much?

      • Collie says:

        @johnva: I advocate this as well, it is a dying business model. The only reason it has gone the way of the buggy whip is the state laws that protect the dealerships. The downside is the manufactures want the dealers to deal with the service and warranty. The day is coming, probably sooner than we think.

  23. madfrog says:

    The GM dealership that I used to work at is going thru this right now. From what I understand, GM notified them the other day they are coming to get the cars. This dealership has a Nissan store as well, and will be moving their used car inventory to old GM facility.

    Perhaps the cars are going to the same place that all the lost socks in the dryer end up, lol

  24. Anonymous says:

    Something very different has happened at a local Subaru/VW dealership here in Indy.

    A buddy told me Duke Gold’s Speedway Subaru/VW closed due to financial troubles. This was a real shame too as they had recently built an entirely new stand-alone VW building.

    About a week later I drove by the dealership and was surprised to see all of the cars on both lots but no activity. A few days later I drove by again. This time I stopped. There was a sign on the door saying the dealership is temporarily closed until new financing can be obtained. That was about 6 weeks ago. Cars are still there. Kinda like a ghost town.

  25. Swifty says:

    Anyone else having flashbacks to Bill Heard? Isn’t some sort of floorplanning shenanigans exactly what brought them down?

  26. Plates says:

    I really think that dealers are just a part of the problem with the auto industry. Why can’t the auto makers just sell their own cars and have maintenance facilities?

  27. missy070203 says:

    Wow so even the manufacturers have their own Repo. men… lol these dealerships have to take out commercial loans to “buy” automobiles from the manufacturer and then they repay the commercial loans as they sell the vehicles…. some of these loans are held by the manufacturer others held by local banks….. heres the problem they aren’t selling enough new cars and using slight profit from used car sales and service shops income so they cut cost but in the end something has to break they either have to let the manufacturer repo the cars or risk having real estate repo from the local banks…. since most local banks no longer allow the dealerships to use new auto titles as collateral on commercial loans the dealer ships are using the real property as defined by the actual dealership as collateral for these commercial loans…. I’m certain we will be seeing alot more dealers fall by mid-summer as these loans continue to default due to low sales volume

  28. Dave J. says:

    Most of the cars right now are sitting in huge lots in places like Long Beach. Who knows how long they will sit there, or what will happen to them when (in theory) next year’s models are ready for sale.

    Do a google image search for “unsold cars” and you will see some astounding things.

  29. P_Smith says:

    And people think the contracts that fast food franchisees have to endure are stupid and constricting.

  30. Corporate-Shill says:

    Dealer has defaulted on payments and the auto inventory is collateral on the loan.

    REPO man time on a large scale.

  31. sean98125 says:

    There’s a GM/Buick dealership in North Seattle that seems to have declining stock on hand. They used to have fancy new trucks and SUVs on their main corner, but now they have a 94 F-250 and a 01 S-10 there. Inside the showroom, they have some used cars and usually one or two classics like an old musclecar or something. I don’t think they are going to be around much longer. The Lincoln/Mercury dealership across the street seems to be doing slightly better, but not by much.

  32. David Brodbeck says:

    @Collie: Well, you were suggesting ordering as a way to avoid holding inventory. If they don’t have any inventory, how can anyone test-drive a car?

    And yes, ideally I’d want to drive the car I was actually putting my hard-earned money down for. Even new cars can have problems, and who wants to fight the dealer to get them fixed under warranty?

    Who says you can’t bargain for a TV? Most people don’t, but that doesn’t mean it’s impossible. Really, though, the haggling is most peoples’ least favorite part of buying a car, so it doesn’t surprise me that it hasn’t spread to other transactions.

  33. madanthony says:

    I think there is value to having cars in-stock at dealerships – sometimes people wait until they really need a new car to buy – ie their old car broke in a way that isn’t cost-effective to repair, or got totaled in an accident.

    I bought my current vehicle off the lot, and was glad I was able to – mostly because my trade-in had a number of intermittent problems, including an airbag warning light that would come on when it rained – and I was glad to be able to get rid of it on a sunny day when the problems weren’t noticeable.

    • G_Money21 says:


      Of course there is value to having an inventory. You get a better deal becuase they want to get rid of a car they are paying interest on. When I sold cars, we would NEVER discount a car we didnt have in stock. Whats the point.

  34. redkamel says:

    yay! goodbye dealerships! I was crushed when I learned the online car builders were a load of BS. Order online, have it come! If you need a car right away, buy a used one.

  35. Snarkysnake says:

    Sounds like an opportunity to me…

    Try this on for size:

    Smaller,less well heeled dealership lets the big,bad mnufacturer take back the cars.He/she still has a franchise. The dealer becomes the delivery point for cars that the customer ordered/builds from the manufacturers web site. No salesmen. No haggling. No floormats or undecoating scams.Dealer charges a small,reasonable markup (clearly delineated-bigger dealerships shouldn’t be able to touch the price with all their overhead and sales headcount), and helps arrange financing. Test drives ? Buy one of each model that the manufacturer sells and keep it on the lot. Sell as a demo every 6 months.

    Service makes money. Keep that and take some of the capital that is currently invested in cars and upgrade the service department significantly to steal customers away from the big dealers.

    No salesmen. Would you like the car buying experience better if sales weasels were eliminated ?

    Worth a shot. Beats going out of business.

  36. bananaboat says:

    I know MANY years ago when I use to drive delivery, a warehouse next door was the southwest distribution center for a motorcycle brand. Not only did they have the new crated bikes, but also a huge display of assembled bikes they had repo’d from dealerships. They would eventually sell them to dealers at the normal price pre-assembled.

    I would imagine car dealers are the same. They’re just outgrowing their storage facilities and they’ll eventually find their way to another lot. Just beware of the new car on the lot with an expired inspection sticker.

  37. btrotta says:

    These closings are part of the manufacturer’s long-term plans to reduce the number of dealerships overall. The manufacturer’s have been trying to cut dealers for a while, but haven’t had the fortitude to do it because they’re the ones making them money.

    Now with the credit crunch they have the excuse they need.

    The typical way they do it is not through corporate, but through their credit arms — gmac, chrysler financial, etc. The banks, which finance the cars for the dealerships through a process known as floorplan, raise the interest rates the dealers pay to stratospheric levels because they’re a bad risk (even though in many cases they’ve never missed a payment) and then give them a choice — pay the new rate or they take the cars back.

    The interest rates on the floorplans are usually in the 4-6 percent range. The jacked up rates are typically over 30 percent. No dealer can survive that kind of robbery, and with the credit markets so tight, they can’t find a better deal. The result is the finance company pulls the cars from the lot, leaving the dealership without any cars to sell and no way to get any.

    The manufacturers pretend they’re the good guy, because they’re not actually pulling the franchise. It’s the credit companies doing all the dirty work.

    And the dealerships? With no cars to sell, they typically fold quickly. Some try to hang on as factory authorized service centers, but find themselves having to pay cash up front for parts because of their inability to get credit. Most sell off their remaining parts inventory to other dealers and fade into history, victims not of their own incompetence, but of the incompetence of the manufacturers and their finance companies.

  38. Anonymous says:

    We have franchise laws in this country that govern how cars are sold. The manufacturers cannot sell directly to consumers the dealers are the legal entity that sell to individuals. This is why the dealers have so much power, or more correctly, had.

  39. SayAhh says:

    Somewhere in the USA, I’m picturing a con-man plotting to empty a Nissan or Subaru dealership with his own 18-wheeler by pretending to be from Nissan or Subaru.

  40. weaselbit says:

    It would seem like they can’t sell last year’s cars new so sooner or later they’re just going to have to sell them at a reduced price.

  41. G_Money21 says:

    Buying DIRECT from the Manufacturer will NEVER work. They can not hold up an assembly line building cars to order (build a loaded lex WITHOUT A SUNROOF or a bare bones ford WITH A SUNROOF).

    Also, many people when they get a new car, WANT IT RIGHT THEN AND THERE THAT SAME DAY. They don’t want to “wait” for it. They want to know what they see and feel is WHAT THEY ARE BUYING. They dont want to commit to a purchase without seeing and feeling.

    3rd, dealers that dont use “floor plan” and buy their inventory outright, will use that as an advantage to keep a bigger inventory to sell cars to the people that HAVE TO HAVE THEM RIGHT AWAY. They would be the preferred dealership over ones where you had to order and wait for a car directly from the manufacturer.

    The car business has been the same forever, there is a reason it has not adapted, because ultimately it works.